Saturday, May 23, 2020
Do Children with Divorced Parents have a Different Ã¢â¬Å"Love LanguageÃ¢â¬ than those who DonÃ¢â¬â¢t? Divorce is a rattling subject that roughly 1,000,000 children face each year (www.divorcerate.org). Many children respond by wanting nothing to do with their parents, while others respond by wanting more time with their parents (www.understandingteenagers.com). Children without divorced parents tend to have a variety of different Ã¢â¬Å"love languages.Ã¢â¬ Some children react to love differently. Research has said that there are few differences between a child with married parents and a child with divorced. Few kids have problems that carry on throughout their life. Four out of ten face divorce, yet of those four, one will face serious social, emotional, and psychological problems. Only one out of ten children whose parents stay together will have the same problems (Scientific American). Divorce alters lives. Children start to pull away from their parents and peers. Kids whose parents stay together usually have better grades than those whoÃ¢â¬â¢s were divorced. There is only a small difference though. Teens start to understand divorce and blame themselves, causing them to have a low self-esteem. Teens become more aggressive, anxious, irritable, and depressed when their parents are divorced. Some teens start to behave better to try and bring their parents back together. Most children feel like their world is falling apart. Parents are supposed to make sacrifices for their kid, not theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Effects of Divorce on a Child1464 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoften not taken into consideration: How it affects children. Every year 1.1 million children are affected by divorce (Benjamin, 2000). Children from divorce or separation often exhibit behavioral and long-term adjustment problems (Kelly, 2000). Throughout this paper I will discuss divorces effects on children at different age levels, how they react, and what can be done to help them. When a couple with a child chooses to get a divorce this can have major impact on a child at any age. There areRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On The United States Essay2663 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesFamilies of Divorce Many families in the United States have or know someone who has been through a divorce. The reason for this is because divorce has almost become a normal occurrence in our society. According to the textbook Marriages and Families, Diversity and Change Seventh Edition Ã¢â¬Å"1 million married couples in the United States divorce each year.Ã¢â¬ (M. Schwartz, B. Scott, 2012, p. 390) In early America divorce was almost non-existent, that is not the case in our recent day and age. UnfortunatelyRead MoreCelebrity Culture The World Over Infects Vulnerable Families1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespersona that not only shields you but is your best self. I think this fear is cultivated if oneÃ¢â¬â¢s inner life is too quiet. And is why secrecy poisons the fragile filaments of love. Why I still have to check myself when I spend too much time gazing into a mirror and flexing as my father once did. My mother wanted children in a genetic, understandable way. But I think she expected parenthood to be the transformative link with my father. He wanted a son, a linage of patriarchy. She didn t expectRead MoreCulture Essay1357 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdefinition of culture? Answer: Beliefs, customs and arts of a particular society. 2.How do you define family? Answer: Family is people who you care about and would do anything for. 3. Who holds the most Ã¢â¬Å"statusÃ¢â¬ in your family? Why? Answer: My dad; he is the main person that receives income. 4. How do you define success? Answer: Success is a moment where you have completed your goal. 5. Do you consider your parents to be successful? Answer: I believe they are extremely successful because theyRead MoreAnalysis Of George F. Gilder s Men And Marriage 1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Background: George F. Gilder was a graduate of Harvard University and even served in the United States Marine Corps. His love for economics and writing landed him with a successful career as a speechwriter and later his skills allowed him to contribute to numerous economic reports in The Wall Street Journal. Upon researching the author, I was surprised to learn that Gilder wrote speeches for President Richard Nixon. The book, Ã¢â¬Å"Men and MarriageÃ¢â¬ (written in 1986) is a revised edition ofRead More The Self-Concept of Father-Absent Children in Middle Childhood3741 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe Self-Concept of Father-Absent Children in Middle Childhood Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ManÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality embodies numerous traits and self-concept holds the predominant of these traits according to Rogers. It helps the person understand personality and social development, for it is through the developing self-concept that man form increasingly stable picture of their selves, partly, reflected by others in their surroundings (Craig;1996,p.367). As the person interacts with his environment, such as peer groupsRead MoreMy Problem and Solution2416 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesreally mad. Suddenly, I heard a woman voices from the other side very politely, and she said, Aaron, you are matured enough, dont you know what you are doing, which is totally wrong, you should respect our culture our religions and us. You cannot do what you want. Life is your, and choices are your too, but some time making a decision for your marriage life, and we have decision too, so you can not make any major decision for that. I was very quite, and listen to all the word s that lady saidRead MorePersonal Narrative: Wellness Essay1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto experience a closeness that I have never experienced with anyone. She is the one person that can make me feel better and happier about myself. She helps me forget about problems that dont need to be worried about by just being and talking with her. To me she is that one very special person that I love. The feeling of love for her is a deep, passionate, caring, understanding, and unconditional love. Ph.D. Shelly Wu of the university of Pennsylvania says that love is an intense feeling for a certainRead MoreParents with Immature Behaviors7181 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pages[pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Immature Parents: Role Reversal Many of todays teens are forced to act like adultsÃ¢â¬âbecause their parents wont. by Ginger Rue [pic] Mama Drama In December 2009 a California superior court awarded custody of then-seventeen-year-old Frances Bean Cobain (left) to her paternal grandmother and aunt and issued a restraining order against Francess mother, Courtney Love (right). Photo: Adam Nemser/photolink.net/Newscom After a tough firstRead MoreI Am The Youngest Of Four Siblings2482 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesI am the youngest of four siblings. There is a huge gap between myself and my oldest sibling. He was a graduating senior the year I was born. I also have a sibling who is mentally disabled which made my childhood very difficult. Most would say Ã¢â¬Å"you are the spoiled baby rightÃ¢â¬ not the case in my family. My brother was also severely epileptic and had horrible gran maul seizures, sometime multiple at one time. It was awful! Every time he had a seizure, I would hide under the table or bed while my mom
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Introduction The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive, without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including Pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, and breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. Medical technology is one of the professions that is very prone to accidental exposure to this blood borne pathogen due to their nature of work. In a review made by the World Health organization (WHO)Show MoreRelatedHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis paper explores the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The virus has infected two million adults and children by the year 2005 already. The virus continues to race around the world, and new HIV infections are at 50,000 per year (Martine Peeters, Matthieu Jung, Ahidjo Ayouba) (2013). The final outcome of the HIV infection is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). There are many treatments that have developed to help the large numberRead MoreHiv And Human Immunodeficiency Virus Essay1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHIV has been a pandemic that has affected the world relentlessly for many years in a never-ending circle. HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Viru s, is the virus that is spread through certain bodily fluids and can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). HIV attacks the immune system by destroying CD4+ T cells, which leaves the person infected with HIV vulnerable to other infections, diseases, and other complications.1 Once this virus is acquired, the human can never fully rid itself of thisRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(2010), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that affects the human immune system, leading to a chronic, progressive sickness that leaves people susceptible to opportunistic infections. When the body no longer can fight or resist infections, the condition is at this point referred to as AIDS, which means Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Averagely, it has been found to take more than ten years to develop from initial infection of HIV to AIDS. Though simple in description, HIV and AIDSRead MoreThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesshown that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause of AIDS. More than 33.4 million people worldwide are infected with the HIV virus today. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency virus. HIV is a virus similar to that of the flu or common cold. The differentiating factor is that with the flu and cold, your body will eventually clear the virus out of your system, but with the HIV virus, the immune system cannot clear it. Getting HIV means you have it for life. The virus immediately beginsRead MoreThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Uses of Blood by the HIV Virus Blood-borne diseases have contributed greatly to poor health outcomes among individuals and communities. Though blood fulfills various functions to ensure our survival, it can also act as the mechanism through which we become diseased. Understanding the characteristics of such infectious diseases is essential to preventing further cases. In this paper I will discuss how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uses blood to cause illness within the infected individualRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become more commonly seen in the world. It is important to show compassion rather than judging that patient based on a virus. The hygienist plays an important role in making the patient feel comfortable and in a judgment free environment. The patient should not feel as if the disease or virus defines the overall character of the patient. Standards precautions are still the same when treating all patients with or without a compromisingRead MoreHiv And Human Immunodeficiency Virus1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is HIV? HIV is a fatal disease which stands for Ã¢â¬Å"Human Immunodeficiency VirusÃ¢â¬ it is a failure to the immune system to protect the body from any infections. This virus causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. When HIV is left untreated it leads to another disease called Ã¢â¬Å"AIDSÃ¢â¬ . It can occur in any age, race, sex or sexual orientation. The highest risk of contracting HIV is having unprotected sex and sharing needles with others. Another factor are people that have STIÃ¢â¬â¢s andRead MoreThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )980 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an immune system disorder that can be contracted through sexual activity as well as other types of contact. (Healthy Living, pg. 79) If left untreated this virus can turn into AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). AIDS is the final stage of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (aids.gov) AIDS is an incurable progressive disease that causes gradual destruction of CD4 T cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (Diseases, pg. 431) A healthyRead MoreHiv, Or Human Immunodeficiency Virus998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesQuestion 1 HIV, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus, attacks the human immune system and greatly weakens the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to fight foreign invaders and infection. HIV first demanded notice in the early 1980s in the United States in homosexual men displaying illnesses like Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcoma. The disease was soon observed in IV drug users, hemophiliacs, and blood transfusion recipients, but became publicized as a Ã¢â¬Å"gay disease,Ã¢â¬ nicknamed by the media as GRID, or Gay-RelatedRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retro virus that causes AIDs by infecting the T Helper cells of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system. The AIDS virus is the final stages of the HIV virus. HIV is a lentivirus genus, which is a subgroup of the retrovirus that causes the AIDS virus. Even with proper treatment, an infected person has a life expectancy of less than ten years.As the virus weakens t he human immune systems, this effectleaves the patient compromised and at risk to opportunistic infections
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
PRODUCT FLOW ALONG SUPPLY CHAIN: SOURCING IN CHINA vs. HONG KONG They are many aspects involved making a decision on which styles to source from China and which styles to source from Hong Kong. The differences between the producing the products in China and Hong Kong are: * ORDER SIZES: The minimum production quantity for a style in China is 1200 units while in Hong Kong it is 600 units. We will write a custom essay sample on Performance Indicator Case Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thus Hong Kong factory can produce smaller order quantities effectively, thus enabling the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s to increase the range of products it offered and manage the inventory risk. Reason: This difference in production abilities is mainly due to the high skilled labor coupled with shorter production lines in Hong Kong compared to the low skilled and long production lines in China * LABOUR The workers in Hong Kong worked about 50% faster compared to the workers in China. As a result the parka line in Hong Kong requires only 10 workers to complete all the operations whereas the parka line in China require up to 40 workers. This resulted in the longer production lines. In spite of the high quality of workers in Hong Kong, the unemployment rate in the country is very low and most of the younger workers prefer office jobs. Hence it is difficult to acquire labor in Hong Kong. Reason: The differences in the efficiency might be due to the variances in the trainings given to the workers in China and Hong Kong. The workers in Hong Kong were more cross functional and were trained to work in broader range of jobs compared to the Chinese workers. * TOTAL COST The overall cost of production is lower in China as compared to Hong Kong. Though there is a definite cost advantage, there are strict quota restrictions by the U. S government on shipping goods from China when compared to Hong Kong. Reason: The lower production costs in China can be mostly attributed to the low wage rates compared to the wage rates paid in Hong Kong. The workers are paid $0. 16 per hour in China compared to $3. 84 per hour paid in Hong Kong. * QUALITY Another main difference between sourcing in China and Hong Kong is the quality of the products. The quality and reliability of the products from China is relatives low when compared to Hong Kong. Reason: The difference in quality could mainly be attributed to the labor skill and efficiency in both the regions. The workers in Hong Kong have the capability to ramp up the production faster and thus they had the shorter production lines. Longer production lines in China led to the greater imbalances both in the quality and time required in manufacturing the product. Recommendation Based on our analysis we found the order quantity for each of the 10 parkas. A detailed order quantity for each of the 10 parkas is given in appendix 3. Steps for calculating order quantity: For Obermeyer we have Cu = $27 and Co = $9 from this we calculate CSL for Obermeyer = . 75. This means that there is 25% probability for a stock out applicable for each of the 10 parkas. * We used two standard deviations for the normal distribution of demand. * By using the formula Q=Z. S. D+mean for 25% stock out the overall quantity to be ordered is calculated to be 26412. * Since we need to order 10,000 units the summation of order quantity of all the 10 parkas is equal to 10,000. * We assume that the demand for each of the 10 parkas will be in same proposition. Using this we calculate for Z; Z=1. 06. * Using the z value, mean and standard deviation we calculate the order quantity for each of the 10 parkas. (See appendix 3) * Also total expected profit for 10 parkas is approximately $2. 3 Million and average left over quantity is 69 units per parka. APPENDIX 1) Cost analysis at different stages of production. OBERSPORT| Ã | | | cost if made in hongkong | $60. 08 | | | cost if made in China | $51. 92 | | | weighted average cost | $56. 00 | | | | | | | Greig Shell fabric | $9. 00 | | | Finishing of Shell fabric | $3. 90 | | | Finished lining fabric| $3. 90 | | | Insulation | $4. 80 | | | Zippers | $3. 60 | | | Thread| $0. 60 | | | Logo,Patches etc | $3. 00 | | | Snaps| $0. 90 | | | Dyeing of snaps | $0. 30 | | | | $30. 00 | | | | | | | Agent fee| Ã | | | Hong Kong | 3. 49| | | China| 2. 98| | | | Ã | | | Labor cost per unit | Ã | | | China| 0. 78| | | Hong Kong| 10| | | | | | | Tranportation cost (weighted average ) | Quantity| charge/unit| total| Ocean | 160000| 1. 4| 224000| Air | 40000| 5| 200000| weighted average | 200000| | 424000| weighted average/unit| Ã | Ã | $2. 12 | Appendix 2 Appendix 3 How to cite Performance Indicator Case Analysis, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
The term market refers to the place where buyers and sellers meet to engage in transactions that entail the exchange of goods or the provision of services for a consideration. A market is not only characterized by a building where people carry out business transactions. This is because any place that people carry out commerce can be referred to as a market. A market is characterized by various mechanisms that facilitate trade. These mechanisms usually pertain to the supply and demand of products and services (Bergin, 2005). From this explanation it should be clear that a market is comprised of three main elements. The sellers these are the people who bring the products or services to the market to be procured by the willing buyers. At this stage it is imperative to highlight that in most cases sellers are the produces however in other instances the sellers are not necessarily the producers instead they can be traders. The second element of the market is the buyers. Buyers are individual who are willing and able to acquire the products or services being offered at the prevailing market price. Buyers are of two types; there are those that buy the products or services for their own consumption and there are those that buy the products or services in order to resell them in different markets. The buyers who buy the products for their own consumption are referred to as consumers whereas buyers who buy the products or services in order to resell them in different market are commonly referred to as trades and they can also be called arbitragers (Nicholson amp; Snyder, 2008). The third element of the market is the products that are being traded. The term product can be used to refer to either goods or services that are being offered in exchange for a consideration. The term product can also be used to refer to commodities only. General Objectives One of the general objectives of this paper is to facilitate the readers of this document to gain an understanding of how markets work and most importantly how a monopolistic competitive market works. This paper will achieve this through briefly discussing various types of markets and their characteristics. Another general objective of this paper is to compare and contrast the various characteristics of the different forms of market structures. This will serve to enable the readers to carry out a comparative analysis of the various forms of market structures thus they will be able to enhance their knowledge on market structures. This objective will be attained through the analysis of the factors, which are mainly in play for the existence of a particular form of market. The paper will also seek to analyze how the various factors in such markets interrelate in order to develop a market mechanism for that form of market structure. This is because all forms of markets structures have market mechanisms. These market mechanisms are usually as result of the interaction of various factors that are both internal and external to a particular market. Specific Objectives One of the specific objectives of this paper is to discuss the conceptual theory of a monopolistic competitive market. The discussion of the monopolistic competitive market entails analyzing the various factors that characterize this particular form of market structure. This is will be important form enhance the knowledge of the readers of this paper, on monopolistic competitive market structure. The discussion of the conceptual theory will also enable the readers to have a good basis for analyzing and responding to questions that relate to monopolistic competitive market structure. Another objective is to discuss the characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market. The discussion of the characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market structure is important because it will serve to explain how the various factors involved in this type of market structure interrelate in order to this unique type of market. The discussion of the characteristic of a monopolistic competitive market will serve to enhance the understanding of the readers of how companies that operate in such a market carry out their operations. The discussion of these characteristics will serve to inform the readers the various factors that companies operating in this type of market put into consideration during decision-making. This discussion will also enable the readers to be able to identify a monopolistic competitive market in a real business situation. This paper also aims at establishing how market equilibrium is achieved both in the long Ã¢â¬â run and in the short run. This is mainly because in a monopolistic competitive market structure, market equilibrium is achieved differently both in the short Ã¢â¬â run and in the long Ã¢â¬â run. This analysis is imperative mainly because this knowledge enables the management to have a good basis for decision-making. The analysis will provide factors that the management should put into consideration whenever they are making decisions concerning either the short term or the long Ã¢â¬â term future of a company. The illustration of how market equilibriums are achieved in the short run or in the long run will enable the readers to gain understanding of how the various factors in this market structure relate in the determination of the equilibrium market prices. It will also enable to understand how companies that operate in a monopolistic competitive market adapt themselves in order to be able to operate in this particular form of market at minimal costs and manage to obtain maximum profits. This paper will also provide a practical example of a monopolistic competitive market. In this example, the paper will seek to illustrate how the conceptual theory is exhibited in this form of market structure. This paper will utilize this example in order to enhance the knowledge of the reader on how market equilibrium is attained both in the long Ã¢â¬â run and in the short Ã¢â¬â run. This example will illustrate how the various factors are displayed in a real market situation, also this paper will utilize the example to look at the type of decisions that are made by mangers of companies that operate in a monopolistic competitive markets structure. Conceptual Theory There are four forms of market structure namely, monopoly, perfect competition, monopolistic competition and oligopoly. These forms of market structures are characterized by different market conditions. Markets are mainly classified according to the number of firms in the industry or the form of products sold in them. The number of firms operating in a particular market determines the level of competition in that market. Product markets are mainly categorized according to the number of firms in the industry and the degree of competition that is prevalent in a particular industry. At this stage it is also important to highlight that equilibrium prices in these markets are subject to the forces of supply and demand. The forces of supply and demand are known as the price mechanism. An individual firm on itself cannot influence the price of a commodity and can therefore only take the price prevailing in the market. Due to this condition a firm is therefore said to be a price taker (Nicholson amp; Snyder, 2008). The movement along a demand curve is caused by changes in price of a commodity. An increase in price results in a decrease in quantity demanded hence a movement along the demand curve to the left. A shift in the demand curve is caused by changes in factors other than the price of the commodity in question. Different quantities are therefore demanded at the original price. A shift in the demand curve outwards to the right indicates that more quantities are demanded at the original price whereas a shift inwards to the left indicates that fewer quantities are demanded at the original price (Dwivedi, 2006). Movement in the supply curve is similar to movement in the demand curve. A shift in the supply curve refers to a relocation of the supply curve either outwards to the right or inwards to the left due to change in the factors that affect supply other than price. This means that at each price, a different quantity will be supplied that was previously supplied. Equilibrium price refers to the price, where the quantity demanded equals that supplied. It is the price at which the amount the customers are able and willing to buy is equal to the quantity producers willing and able to supply. The equilibrium point, refers to a point at which the demand and the supply curve intersect. Any price above the equilibrium price leads to excess supply, whereas any price below the equilibrium price leads to excess demand. Excess demand or supply causes disequilibrium in the market. Due to the excess demand for a particular commodity in the market, a shortage is created. This shortage causes the consumers to compete for the limited commodity in the market thus making the price of that commodity go up. As he price continues to rise, suppliers put more of the commodity into the market (Mandal, 2007). On the other hand, the high price also discourages some consumers from buying the commodity. This scenario of increased supply and reducing demand continues until the equilibrium price and quantity are set. When there is excess supply of a commodity in the market the prices begins to fall. As the price falls more consumers purchase the commodity. The suppliers also reduce the amount of t he commodity they are releasing into the market due to the falling prices. This scenario of falling supply and increasing demand continues until the equilibrium price and quantity are set. It is also important to highlight that a general assumption in the study of this subject is that firms aim at attaining maximum profits using minimal costs possible. This means during decision making the managers of the firm will always aim at using the least resources possible and utilise them efficiently in order to attain the maximum achievable profits possible. The level of output that will bring about maximum profit in a firm depends on the costs incurred and the revenues earned. Revenues refers to incomes obtained by a firm from the sale of its outputs and they may be categorized into three namely, total revenue, average revenue and marginal revenue. Total revenue refers to the total income earned by a firm from the sale of its output. Total revenue is obtained through multiplying the total output sold by the price. Average revenue refers to income per unit of output. Average revenue can be obtained by dividing the total revenue obtained by the number of units of output. It is important to note that the average revenue is the same as the price of the commodity (Dwivedi, 2006). This implies that the average revenue curve, which relates average revenues to output, is the same as the demand curve, which relates prices to output. Marginal revenue refers to the addition to the total revenue arising from the sale of an additional unit of output. Marginal revenue can also be obtained by subtracting the previous total revenue from the current one and can be seen to be equal to the price and average revenue. Characteristics of a monopolistic competitive market This is a market structure that combines aspects of perfect competition and those of a monopoly. There are many sellers and many buyers just like in perfect competition. The commodities dealt with are similar but each firm tends to differentiate its products from those of its competitors through acts such as branding, packing, wrapping and coloring. A monopolistic competitive market structure is a combination of the features that will be discussed in the succeeding paragraphs. In a monopolistic competitive market there exist many buyers and sellers. This comes in adequately because there is no single firm that can influence the prices of commodities or services in the market. If a business sells its goods or services above the market price then consumers can buy their goods from other businessmen. If a company sells its products at a lower price then chances of making a loss is very high (Mandal, 2007). Though a business may increase its prices in a perfect competition, the action may be risky since customers will move to another business. This is not the case with a monopolistic business, though a firm may lose some of the customers, some will remain due to the kind of relationship they have with the seller or even the quality of the given products. All the aforementioned factors are due to the fact that there is a large number of buyers and customers that act independently. In this form of market structure it is assumed that the sellers and the buyers of commodities are well informed about the market. That is they know the prices, quality of products and all the factors affecting the market. In this market the products are differentiated. The products from different producers either vary in quality or the product is a group of commodities which are close substitutes of each other (Mandal, 2007). For instance, in the toothpaste industry there are different brands such as Colgate, CloseÃ¢â¬â up and Aquafresh. This differentiation of products from different firms enables each firm to enjoy a certain degree of monopoly power. A monopolistic competitive market is characterized by freedom of entry and exit. This means there are no barriers to a business entering or living the market. This means that new firms wishing to supply the same commodity are free to do so (Bergin, 2005). Similarly, existing firms wishing to leave the market are free to do so. How to determine equilibrium in the short Ã¢â¬â run and long Ã¢â¬â run on Monopolistic Competitive Market Structure Price and output determination under monopolistic competition Due to product differentiation, a firm under monopolistic competition is able to exercise some influence on the price of the product. This means that a firm can raise prices yet some customers will still buy at these high prices (Dwivedi, 2006). However, many customers will switch to rivalsÃ¢â¬â¢ products. On the other hand, if the firm lowers the price, it would attract some buyers from the rival firms, thereby increasing its productÃ¢â¬â¢s demand. A monopolistically competitive market has a demand curve that slopes downward from left to right. In a monopolistic competitive market the demand curve is fairly elastic. This means that a small change in price will bring about more than proportionate changes in quantities demanded. This is because there are many substitutes in the market. The demand curve is more elastic than the one faced by a monopolist but less elastic than a perfectly competitive market whose demand is perfectly elastic (Jehle amp; Reny, 2011). The relationship between average revenue and marginal revenue is similar to that of a monopolist. For average revenue to be increasing as more units of output are sold, the marginal revenue must be lower than the average revenue. Short Ã¢â¬â run equilibrium output under monopolistic competition A firm under monopolistic competition will be at equilibrium at an output when profits are maximized. This is the position when marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. This is at price P1 and quantity Qe. However, there still excess demand and the firm can maximize its profits by changing price Pe. The firm will therefore produce quantity Qe and sell at price Pe (Jehle amp; Reny, 2011). Qe represents equilibrium output and P1 represents equilibrium price. The price at which the equilibrium output can be sold is determined by the demand Curve (Average Revenue) and its price. Profits are maximized at a level of output between O (zero) and the equilibrium quantity demanded. Long Ã¢â¬â run equilibrium output under monopolistic competition A firm under monopolistic competition can make supernormal profits in the short Ã¢â¬â run. Since there is free entry of new firm into the market, the supernormal profits will attract the new firms with the effect that demand for the old firmÃ¢â¬â¢s customers will be taken by new firms. The demand curve for the old firm therefore shifts right to left (Mandal, 2007). A lower quantity is demanded at each price. Firms are likely to increase expenditure on product promotion due to increased competition, which in turn would cause the average total cost curve to shift upwards. New firms will continue to enter the market as long as the existing equilibrium is achieved and all firms would be earning normal profits. The equilibrium point is where the average revenue is equal to the average cost. This point is achieved in the long run when the average revenue curve is a tangent to the average cost curve. The firm will be at equilibrium when it produces output at the equilibrium quantity demanded (Bergin, 2005). This is where the marginal revenues equal the marginal cost because the firm is in the business of profit maximization. At the point of equilibrium, the average cost is equal to the average revenue. This is so because competitive pressure means that a firm can neither make a loss nor earn supernormal profits. At this point of equilibrium the firm is making normal profits only. Conclusion An example of a monopolistic competitive market is the toothpaste market. The toothpaste market is characterized by firms that offers products that are similar but they are highly differentiated. Consumers of Colgate toothpaste believe that Colgate is the number one brand of toothpaste that ensures strong teeth. As a result of this the consumers are normally willing to buy toothpaste regardless of the price. Consumers of Aquafresh toothpaste believe that Aquafresh is the number one brand that ensures healthy germs and fresh breathe. As a result of this customers are willing to always procure the Aquafresh toothpaste regardless of the price.
Monday, March 23, 2020
Alcatraz Island And Prison Essays - Alcatraz Island, Free Essays Alcatraz Island And Prison Alcatraz Island has quite a distinct history. Many people know that Alcatraz served as a federal prison, but most are reluctant to know that this island served as fort. Built before the Civil War, it served two main purposes. First, that it was to guard the San Francisco bay area from enemy ships against a foreign invasion, and second, to hold hostage prisoners of war or POW's as they were called. In this report, I'll show you how this fortress came to be a federal prison, why it is no longer in operation today, and most importantly, to show why it was built in the first place. When the great Gold Rush of 1849 first started, California grew from what would be considered a small, unpopulated state, into what it is now. California is now one of the most populated states and it was mostly the gold rush that brought attention to California. As the government saw all of this happening, they realized that California was much more important than they ever realized. In their realization, they decided that California must be protected. San Francisco has one of the largest bays in all of California, and so this was where enemy countries would most likely to try to invade the country. So this is where Alcatraz was to lie, to serve as a military fort. It was supposed to serve as a secondary base in companionship to another base located on the other side of Golden Gate Bridge. But with severe problems trying to build this other base, Alcatraz was to remain alone. Out in the middle of the San Francisco Bay, the island of Alcatraz is definitely a world unto itself. Isolation is just one of the many constants of island life for any inhabitant on Alcatraz Island. It is the most reoccurring theme in the unfolding history of Alcatraz Island. Alcatraz Island is one of Golden Gate National Recreation Area's most popular destinations, offering a close-up look at a historic and infamous federal prison long off-limits to the public. Visitors to the island can not only explore the remnants of the prison, but learn of the American occupation of 1969 - 1971, early military fortifications and the West Coast's first and oldest operating lighthouse. These structures stand among the island's many natural features - gardens, tidepools, bird nests, and bay views beyond compare. (1) Fortress Alcatraz ran in operation from 1850 - 1933. It served as San Francisco's only major defense. It started off with only eleven cannons, that were transported onto the island in 1854. By the early 1860's, Alcatraz had 111 cannons. Some were enormous, firing a fifteen-inch ball weighing over 450 pounds. Defenses included a row of brick enclosed gun positions called case mates to protect the dock; a fortified gateway or a Sally Port to block the entrance road; and a three-story citadel on top of the island. This served both as an armed barracks and as a last line defense strategy. Even though Alcatraz was built to withstand a foreign invasion, its most important use was during the Civil War, 1861 - 1865. Seeing as it was the only completed fort in the entire bay, it was vital in the protecting from Confederate Raiders. Early in the war, ten thousand rifles were moved to Alcatraz from the State armory, to prevent them from being used by southern sympathizers. The crew of a Confederate privateer were among the first inmates to be held within The Rock. Alcatraz's notoriety as a penitentiary overshadows its earlier, and longer use by the Army. Surprisingly, this small island once was the most powerful fort west of the Mississippi River. There was some limited modernization of the island's defenses after the Civil War. Rifled cannons were mounted. In 1854 some 450 electrically controlled underwater mines were brought to the island to protect the Bay. However, as the ships of potential enemies became more and more powerful, the defenses were increasing! ly obsolete. In 1907 Alcatraz officially ceased being a fortress and became Pacific Branch, U.S. Military Prison. Alcatraz Island's use as a prison began in December 1859 with the arrival of the first permanent garrison. Eleven of these soldiers were confined in the Sally Port basement. The Army recognized that the cold water (53 F) and swift currents surrounding Alcatraz made it an ideal site for a prison, and in 1861 the post was designated as the military prison for the Department of the Pacific - most
Friday, March 6, 2020
Winning Ideas to Create Research Articles Winning Ideas to Create Research Articles Research articles are made up of results achieved from conducting original research. These results can be obtained through either primary or secondary analysis.Ã Fundamental research involves collecting and capturing information directly from the source. Secondary research includes obtaining information from the previous researches done by others and recording it. The essential requirement of a research paper is to look for information relating to the topic, taking a stand/side on the issue and providing evidence for the position taken in an organized manner. The objective of the paper is the essence of a research paper. Ã A good research paper shows the findings of the research in a clear and concise manner without being mixed up by the wordplay of the author. A cook follows a written recipe to prepare a delicious meal. It is also the same with the author. There is a guideline/recipe that an author should use for him/her to have an interesting research paper. The following is a guideline to writing a good research paper. Selecting the Topic Choosing your topic is the first and the most crucial step in a research project. Before choosing a research topic, a student/author should ask himself/herself such questions: Has this topic been researched upon extensively? Is this topic unique and timely? Is it coherent with my career choice? A student should always choose a topic that he/she is interested. Whenever possible, the author needs to choose a topic that he/she is passionate about. For example, if you are interested in Business Management, write things that involve business issues or evolution of businesses. Do not deviate from your topic. Always consult with your friends and teachers about your chosen topic to get new ideas. If you realize that the topic you chose is not right for you, do not hesitate change. Researching the Topic After selecting a topic suitable for you, you should now start researching. Research can be done using several resources such as journal articles, web pages, books, posts on various blogs, interviews, newsletters, and magazines. You can also apply different online research methods that are well-known these days. Do not rely on one or two sources rather, use at least five sources. Books should be your primary tools to use when researching. Reading as much as you can will help you understand and connect things clearly. You will have the ability to see and seal any loopholes in your research. Analyze and Plan Every type of writing has its own approach. If your research becomes complicated for you, you can prepare a flowchart so that you can know all the stages in a sequence and prepare for them. Print out the research you have gathered online, highlight the key areas in the books you have read and read your research again. Identify if your research paper is argumentative or analytic. An argumentative research paper involves the author taking a side and arguing from that perspective. An analytic paper is prepared when the author freshly reviews an important issue. Lastly, the author should know his/her audience. If you are writing to people who are conversant with topic, you need not explain your ideas using theories. Preparing the Draft of a Research Article Organize your outline. Include in-text citations at the end of an important point. Depending on your paper requirements, follow the formatting guidelines in every part of your paper. You should acknowledge authors by citing your research paper. This is always mandatory. Inserting your citations properly will reduce the chances of your paper being rejected. Preparing the Final Draft Put aside your draft for a day before revising it for you to see any gaps. Rethink your ideas and organize again your paragraphs and sentences when revising. Read your paper out loud or have someone read it for you. Put it all together using the format authorized by your institution. Some universities have their unique way of formatting papers. Your supervisor should assist you by ensuring that the format is correct and the citations well placed before submission. To summarize, there are ten stages that experts go through to ensure that their research article is lovely and entertaining to their readers. The ten steps will help you in creating a hypothesis, testing your ideas and presenting your findings: First, always choose a topic that is right for you. You should enjoy studying and researching it. Secondly, plan your dissertation by creating an outline to organize and reasonably present ideas. Third, make use of transitions. This communicates to the readers that you are moving from one topic to another. Also separate your ideas using paragraphs. Two different ideas should not be put in one section instead, create a new paragraph for a different idea. Direct quotes should be included in your dissertation. They act as pieces of evidence from your sources. The direct quote should prove a point for your topic. Sixth, your paper should be formatted correctly with the help of your supervisor. Continue to write your draft so that it is error free. Ensure your research article has citations that are well placed. All sources should be cited. Create a desirable title for your article. Your topic should go hand in hand with your hypothesis. Lastly, form a memorable conclusion that should prove your point. At our service, we are committed to providing students with expert research paper writing help on different topics and disciplines.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Knowledge management, social networks and innovation - Coursework Example Knowledge Management (KM), in this regards, is considered the sole requisite to enhance innovation that would act as an added advantage for organisations to maintain their dominance in the global environment. Hence, organisations in the present era are maintaining its competitive edge based on the efficient handling of strategies, such as OL as well as KM (Prange, 1999). Hence, with the developments in the concepts of practice and technology orientation, the organisations are illustrating, the general concepts sustained within the diversified business world (Argyris, 1999). In this context, the paper convolutes on creation of knowledge as well as transfer within organisation. The organisational dynamics will be duly elaborated based on the needs of social dynamics and engendered innovations. Furthermore, the paper inclined towards addressing the complex problems that are prominent within the business domain to enhance the ability of the organisation to assess knowledge. Correspondingly, by addressing the development within the domain of technology, the paper develops a better understanding of the diverse applications of changing business needs. With changing environment and dynamic needs of business, OL has become a major area of interest among business personnel that might help them to develop the quality of operation. Continuous development within the research and development field, as well as in the technical field has in turn acted as a stimulus for integrating OL into the system of business operation (Argote & Miron-Spektor, 2005). With the need to maintain a continuous process of growth and sustainability within the global edge, the organisations are fostering continuous learning process too (Schulz, 2011; Torlak, n.d.). It must be noted in this context that learning is often attributed as a prerequisite for developing the ability of employees in general by enhancing their capacity to perform within the global domain. OL herewith refers to a